What is six sigma?

Six Sigma at many organizations simply means a measure of quality that strives for near perfection. Six Sigma is a data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects (driving towards six standard deviations between the mean and the nearest specification limit) in any process from manufacturing to transactional and from product to service.

The  statistical representation of Six Sigma describes quantitatively how a process is performing. To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. A Six Sigma defect is defined as anything outside of customer specifications. A Six Sigma opportunity is then the total quantity of chances for a defect. Process sigma can easily be calculated using a Six Sigma Calculator.

This is accomplished through the use of two Six Sigma sub-methodologies: DMAIC and DMADV. The Six Sigma DMAIC process (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) is an improvement system for existing processes falling below specification and looking for incremental improvement. The Six Sigma DMADV  process (define, measure, analyze, design, verify) is an improvement system used to develop new processes or products at Six Sigma quality levels. It can also be employed if a current process requires more than just incremental improvement. Both Six Sigma processes are executed by Six Sigma Green Belts and Six Sigma Black Belts, and are overseen by Six Sigma Master Black Belts.

Many companies like IBM & CEAT have benefitted using Six Sigma.


KUMBH: The largest human gathering on earth

How often have we come across the story of a bollywood movie about the twins, who got separated in the kumbh mela. This year we all came to know that the Kumbh Mela was happening in Haridwar, so how much do we know about this holy gathering? Let me throw some light on how this ritual came into existence.

Kumbh’s history originates from the beginning of the Creation. All devtas were under the influence of a curse that made them weak and coward, Brahma, advised them to churn the ocean for Amrit, intake of which will make them immortal, devtas sought the help of demons for the purpose. gods and demons made a temporary agreement to work together in obtaining amrita from the Milky Ocean, and to share this equally. However,Dhanwantari, the divine healer, appeared with the “Kumbh” containing nectar in his palms, when the Kumbh (pot) containing the amrita appeared, the demons ran away with the pot and were chased by the gods. By their joint churning Amrit was one of the resultants, found in the last. For twelve days and twelve nights (equivalent to twelve human years) the gods and demons fought in the sky for the possession of this pot of amrita. It is said that during the battle, drops of amrita fell on to four places : Prayag, Haridwar, Ujjain and Nasik. Kumbh mela is observed at these four locations where the amrit fell.

It is the largest human gathering on Earth. Entirely based on belief, faith and religion.

Retail worked in INDIA

India has seen a series of changes over the years, the changes in the retail sector have changed the way people approached shopping.

The cities & towns are hoat to a large number of retailers, more, big bazaar, shoppers stop, pantaloons, spencers are a few of these. Earlier the people had to travel places in order to shop for different things that satisfy different needs. If kids wanted toys the family had to travel long distances to reach the toy stores, men had to search long for their clothing & toiletries, but women were the ones who benefitted the most through these retailers, now they had all their needs & wants available under one roof. They can now get sarees, suits, salons everything without travelling places.

Most families now get a lot of time to spend together, as they save time because of this mall & retail culture. Now the common man after long office hours can meet the needs of the family members at one go, without facing parking problems. The people have starting trusting the retailers now. Still the retail sector has to witness a lot of changes in India with the foreign retail giants like Wal Mart entering the indian markets. Families also save a lot by shopping through these retailers as the retailers like big bazaar also offer heavy bulk discounts & the consumer finds it a bit cheaper when compared with the local kirana stores. People also end up saving thousands every month by shopping through these retailers.

How INDIA moulded itself

There was a time when India was considered as a land of snake charmers by the western nations. The country where people die from hunger & diseases. A country insufficient in almost everyfield. The country was moving ahead in one area that was population.

But then came “Economic Liberalisation” in 1991 & it has changed the face of India big time. The FDI’S started coming to the country, it lead to the economic transformation of the country as these FDI’s created a lot of jobs for the people of India, it contributed a lot to the Indian economy. Our education system got strengthened as there were now many good institutions in the country that were giving quality education, the students not only learnt from the Indian leaders but now they had a chance to learn from the west.

The cities of bangalore, gurgaon, ahmedabad, pune witnessed a series of changes. Infrastructure of India got changed & the Indian cities were now on the world map competing with other cities. The infrastructural development further attracted the companies to come to India. Earlier the MNC’s came to India for cutting down their cost of services & production. But now it can be said that they have become addicted to the quality of work they get from our country. Indians are behind none whether it is the field of education, business or sports.

People like Bill Gates have also mentioned several times that the American students are not able to catch up with the creative minds of the Indian students. It can be rightly said that today a major portion of the world population depends on Indians.



India is a cricket crazy nation, so are the people about their brands, how many people heard of Lalit Modi before IPL kicked off? I think not many. But this marketer made it possible to build up a powerful brand like IPL.

Brand IPL is expected to be valued at Rs 18,000 crores, even at the times of financial slowdown in the last year, IPL still stood tall at the front of expenditure & investments. This shows how much the people of India love cricket. Even the recent Modi-Tharoor controversy would prove profitable for brand IPL.

We have seen sponsoring reach new heights with the MRF blimp that can be seen over the stadiums, one can easily find commentators going gaga over the MRF blimp & the MRF pace academy. This is one style of marketing thats new to India. Even the strategic time-outs are being sponsored by Maxx Mobile. The ‘IPL nights’ are sponsored by Karbonn Mobile, its all about mixing glamour with sports. UFO Moviez have got the rights for Theatres, this time IPL matches are on Youtube as well.

IPL plans to beat NFL & FIFA in the upcoming years, but so far Brand IPL has achieved a lot in a small span of 2-3 years.

Types of shares

When trading in shares one must be aware of the types of shares, there are two major kinds of shares. Equity & Preference.

Equity shares: These shares are also known as ordinary shares, these shares do not enjoy any preferential rights regarding the payment of dividend & repayment of capital. Equity shareholders are paid their capital after the preference shareholders are paid. The rate of dividend on equity shares is not fixed. It fluctuates, as it depends on the profits made by a company i.e. higher the profits, higher the dividend, lower the profits, lower the dividend.

Preference shares: Preference shares are those shares which enjoy preference with regards to payment of dividend and repayment of capital. Preference shareholders have some preference over the equity shareholders, as in case of winding up of the company, they are paid their capital first. The rate of dividend on preference shares is fixed.

Preference shares are of two types:

1> Cumulative preference shares: In these kind of shares, if a company is unable to pay the dividend in the present year due to losses or any other problem, then the owner of the shares is eligible for the cumulative dividend  next year i.e the dividend is added to the next years dividend.

2> Non cumulative preference shares: In these shares, if a company is not able to give dividends to the owners of shares due to loses or any other financial problem in the company, then the owner of such shares has no right to become eligible for receiving the dividend of the present year in future.

Difference between shares, stocks, bonds & debentures

All of us come across these shares & debentures either in news or in our daily work. But many of us dont know the basic difference between these terms or even what they mean. Let me give a short description on these & their types.

A debenture is an unsecured loan you offer to a company. The company does not give any collateral for the debenture, but pays a higher rate of interest to its creditors. In case of bankruptcy or financial difficulties, the debenture holders are paid after the bondholders. Debentures are different from stocks and bonds, although all three are types of investment. Let us discuss about different types of investment options for small investors and entrepreneurs.

Stocks: When you buy stocks, you become one of the owners of the company. Your fortunes rise and fall with that of the company. If the stocks of the company soar in value, your investment pays off high dividends, but if the stocks decrease in value, the investments are low paying. Higher the risk you take, higher the rewards you get.

Debentures are more secure than stocks, in the sense that you are guaranteed payments with high interest rates. You are paid an interest on the money you lend the company until the maturity period, after which whatever you invested in the company is paid back to you. The interest is the profit you make from debentures. While stocks are for those who are willing to take risks for the sake of high returns, debentures are for people who want a safe and secure income.

Bonds are more secure than debentures. In case of both, you are paid a guaranteed interest that does not change in value irrespective of the fortunes of the company. However, bonds are more secure than debentures, but carry a lower interest rate. The company provides collateral for the loan. Moreover, in case of liquidation, bondholders will be paid off before debenture holders.

A debenture is more secure than a stock, but not as secure as a bond. In case of bankruptcy, you have no collateral you can claim from the company. To compensate for this, companies pay higher interest rates to debenture holders.

So people, keep in mind these few things whenever you are planning to invest in any company, the further classification would be their in the upcoming blogs.